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HIV Diagnosis and Treatment

Sep 12th 2019 at 12:49 AM


HIV: Diagnosis and Treatment

Generally HIV is diagnosed through blood or saliva tests for antibodies to the virus. However, your body takes up to 12 weeks to develop these antibodies.


A fast test tests for HIV antigen, a protein secreted by the virus instantly following the infection. It may approve a diagnosis soon after infection has taken place and let the patient to take appropriate steps to prevent it from spreading.


Home testing


There are about two Food and Drug Administration-approved home test kits are available for HIV. Based on which one you pick, you will require a drop of saliva or dried blood. If it shows the test as positive, you need to see your health care practitioner as soon as possible to confirm the diagnosis and start treatment. If the test is negative, it needs to be repeated in a few months to confirm the results.


Tests to stage disease and treatment


If you receive a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, a number of tests can help your doctor find out the stage of your disease and the best medication possible. These tests involves:


· CD4 T cell count. CD4 T cells are white blood cells that are precisely targeted and damaged by HIV.

· Viral load (HIV RNA). This test finds out the quantity of virus in your blood. A greater viral load has been related to a worse outcome.

· Drug resistance. Some strains of HIV are resilient to medications. This test aids your health care provider determine if your precise form of the virus has resistance and guides treatment decisions.

· Tests for complications


There's no 100% cure available for HIV/AIDS, but several different Anti HIV medicines are available to prevent the virus from spreading. Such medications are called antiretroviral therapy, or ART. Each class of drug prevents the virus in different ways. ART is now suggested for everyone, irrespective of CD4 T cell counts. It's prescribed to combine three drugs from two classes to avoid producing drug-resistant strains of HIV.


The classes of anti-HIV drugs include:


· Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) prevents a protein required by HIV to make replicas of itself. Examples comprise etravirine (Intelence), efavirenz (Sustiva), and nevirapine (Viramune).

· Nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are defective versions of the building blocks that the virus requires to make replicas of itself. Examples comprise Abacavir (Ziagen), and the combination drugs Descovy (tenofovir alafenamide/emtricitabine), emtricitabine/tenofovir (Truvada), and lamivudine-zidovudine (Combivir).

· Protease inhibitors (PIs) deactivate HIV protease, another protein that HIV desires to reproduce of itself. Examples comprise darunavir (Prezista), fosamprenavir (Lexiva), atazanavir (Reyataz), and indinavir (Crixivan).

· Entry or fusion inhibitors Tblock HIV's admission into CD4 T cells. Examples comprise maraviroc (Selzentry) and enfuvirtide (Fuzeon).

· Integrase inhibitors work by incapacitating a protein called integrase, which HIV employs to insert its genomic material into CD4 T cells. Examples comprise dolutegravir (Tivicay) and raltegravir (Isentress).



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