Even today we see the term "rating" is in this sense: a craftsman or woman for a boss. It has the example of the "master and his companions." As intense as in the Middle Ages, when the entire course in the presence of the master took place, is not more cooperation. Many of the teaching has evolved over the years taken over by schools.
In certain professions, "rating" by a vakexamen acquired rank in a craft, such as a journeyman carpenter. An equivalent is also found in plumbers and electricians, where a time to work with a qualified professional is part of the training.
The chain stitch is an embroidery stitch, which as the name suggests, looks like a chain or necklace. The stabbing his loops, which are stuck together. The stitch can be used for a single linear element can be used, as for area fills. Sometimes a loose chain stitch, such as small petal, or a feather on a wing.
The chain stitch has the advantage that the needle does not back and forth through the fabric need to be inserted, but that it is in a movement can be made. It is worked from the upper side. At the first stitch, the needle from bottom to top. The next stitch is made by (almost) the same place back stabbing and the needle a little further upwards to come. the thread under the needle is then removed. If the needle is pulled through the fabric, the wire must not be too tight to be cited. The loose stabbing remain as rings of a chain slightly loose on the matter lie.