Introduction to Optical Module
Optical module is composed of optoelectronic devices, functional circuits and optical interface. While optoelectronic devices contain transmission and reception two parts.
To be simply, the function of optical module is the photoelectric conversion. The transmitting end converts the electrical signal into optical signal, and after optical fiber's transmission, the receiving end will convert optical signal into electrical signal.
Construction In transmission part, after a certain rate of signals are inputted, and processed by the internal driver chip then the Semiconductor Laser (LD) or a Light Emitting Diode (LED) will emit corresponding rate of modulated optical signals. Its interior automatic optical power control circuit makes sure that the outputing optical signals remain stable. While in reception part, after a certain rate of signals are inputed these signals will be converted into optical signals by light detecting diode modules. After processed by the preamplifier it will emit corresponding rate electrical signals.
- Classification by Function Optical modules include optical receiver modules, optical transmitter modules, optical Transceiver modules and optical transponder modules.
The main function of integrated optical transceiver module is to achieve the goal of optical/electro-optical conversion, in addition to optical power controlling, transmission modulating, signal detecting, IV converting, and limiting amplifier decision regenerating, optical modules also have the functions of anti-counterfeiting information inquiry and TX-disable. SFP, SFF, SFP +, GBIC, XFP, 1x9ect are the common optical module types.
Besides photoelectric conversion function, Optical Transceiver Modules also capable of processing signals. Such as MUX/DEMUX, CDR, function controlling, performance energy collecting and functions monitoring. 200/300pin，XENPAK，and X2/XPAK are the familiar optical transponder modules.
- Classification by Parameter Pluggablility: hot plugging and non-hot plugging. Packaging format: SFP, GBIC, XFP, Xenpak, X2, 1X9, SFF, 200/3000pin, XPAK.
Transmission rate refers to the number of bits transmitted per second, its unit is Mb/s or Gb/s. Optical modules covers the following main rate: low rates, 100 M, 1000M, 2.5G, 4.25G, 4.9G, 6G, 8G, 10G and 40G.
- Classification by Packaging Format
1. XFP（10 Gigabit Small Form Factor Pluggable) is a hot-swappable, protocol -independent optical transceiver for 10G bps Ethernet, SONET/ SDH,optical fiber channel .
2. SFP: small form factor pluggable optical transceiver module, which is the most common optical module type.
3. GigacBiDi series single-fiber optical module makes use of WDM technology to transmit bidirectional signal points with a single fiber optical. (Point to point transmission. Especially when it comes to shortage of optical fiber resources, thus it is needed to transmit two-way signals with single optical fiber.) GigacBiDi includes SFP single fiber bi-directional (BiDi), GBIC single fiber bi-directional (BiDi), SFP + single fiber bi-directional (BiDi), XFP single fiber bi-directional (BiDi), SFF Single Fiber bi-directional (BiDi) and so on.
4. RJ45 electrical port small form factor pluggable module, also known as electrical module or electrical interface.
5. According to its pin, SFF can be divided into 2x5，2x10, etc.
6. Gigabit Ethernet Interface Converter (GBIC) module.
7. Passive Optical Network PON (A-PON, G-PON, GE-PON) optical module.
8. 40Gbs high-speed optical module.
9. SDH transmission module.(OC3, OC12, OC48)
10. Memory modules, such as 4G, 8G, etc.
Common Optical Module
- SFP Optical Module Available Wavelengths: 850nm, 1310nm, 1490nm, 1550nm, CWDM, DWDM Rate: 0－10Gbit/s DDM: optional
- SFP RJ45 Optical Interface Module Interface: RJ45, COPPER Rate：10/100/1000M self-adaptive , Mandatory 1000M DDM：Optional
- XFP Optical Module Available Wavelengths：850nm, 1310nm, 1270nm, 1330nm, CWDM, DWDM Rate：10Gbit/s
- GBIC Optical Module Available Wavelengths：850nm, 1310nm, 1490nm, 1550nm, CWDM, DWDM Rate：1.25Gbit/s
- GBIC RJ45 Optical Interface Module Interface：RJ45, COPPER Rate：10/100/1000M self-adaptive, mandatory 1000M
- SFP+ Optical Module Available Wavelengths：850nm, 1310nm, 1270nm, 1330nm, CWDM, DWDM Rate：10Gbit/s
- X2 Optical Module Available Wavelengths：850nm, 1310nm, 1270nm, 1330nm, CWDM, DWDM Rate：10Gbit/s
- XENPAK Optical Module Available Wavelengths：850nm, 1310nm, 1270nm, 1330nm, CWDM, DWDM Rate：10G
- CFP，CFP2 and CFP4 40Gbit/s, 100Gbit/s QSFP28 40Gbit/s, 100Gbit/s
Optical modules, mostly divided into GBIC, SFP, SFP +, XFP, SFF, CFP, etc. Optical interface types include SC and LC and so on. But at now the commonly used are SFP, SFP + and XFP instead of GBIC. The reason is that GBIC is bulky, and easily broken, while SFP is small and cheap, so it is used more widely. Single-mode Optical Module is suitable for long distance transmission, while multi-mode optical module is suitable for short-distance transmission.
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