CCTV Camera Lenses
CCTV Camera Lenses
The human eye is an incredibly adaptable device that can focus on distant objects and immediately refocus on something close by. It can look into the distance or at a wide angle nearby. It can see in bright light or at dusk, adjusting automatically as it does so. It also has a long ‘depth of field’; therefore, scenes over a long distance can be in focus simultaneously. It sees colour when there is sufficient light, but switches to monochrome vision when there is not. It is also connected to a brain that has a faster updating and retentive memory than any computer. Therefore, the eyes can swivel from side to side and up and down, retaining a clear picture of what was scanned. The brain accepts all the data and makes an immediate decision to move to a particular image of interest, select the appropriate angle of view and refocus. The eye has another clever trick in that it can view a scene of great contrast and adjust only to the part of it that is of interest.
By contrast, the basic lens of a CCTV camera is an exceptionally crude device. It can only be focused on a single plane, everything before and after this plane becoming progressively out of focus. The angle of view is fixed. At any time, it can only view a specific area that must be predetermined. The iris opening is fixed for a particular scene and is only responsive to global changes in light levels. Even an automatic iris lens can be only be set for the overall light level, although there are compensations for different contrasts within a scene. Another problem is that a lens may be set to see into specific areas of interest when there is much contrast between these and the surrounding areas. However, as the sun and seasons change so do light areas become dark and dark areas become light. The important scene can be ‘whited out’ or too dark to be of any use.
A controversial but important aspect of designing a successful CCTV system is the correct selection of the lens. The problem is that the customer may have a totally different perspective of what a lens can see compared to the reality. This is because most people perceive what they want to view as they see it through their own eyes. Topics such as identification of miscreants or numberplates must be subjects debated frequently between installing companies and customers.
The selection of the most appropriate lens for each camera must frequently be a compromise between the absolute requirements of the user and the practical use of the system. It is just not possible to see the whole of a large loading bay and read all the vehicle number plates with one camera. The solution may be more cameras or viewing just a restricted area of particular interest. A Company putting forward the system proposal should have no hesitation in pointing out the restrictions that may be incurred according to the combination of lens versus the number of cameras. Better this than an unhappy customer who is reluctant to pay the invoice.
Although a lens is crude compared to the human eye, it incorporates a high degree of technology and development. There can be a large variation in the quality between different makes and this should be considered according to the needs of a particular installation. The lens is the first interface between the scene to be viewed and the eventual picture on the monitor. Therefore, the quality of the system will be very much affected by the choice of lens. For general surveillance of, for instance, a small retail shop, it is possible to use a lower quality lens with quite acceptable results. As the demands of the system requirement increase then the use of a premium quality lens must be considered. The difference in cost between a poor quality and a high quality lens will be a very small percentage of the total cost of a large industrial system.
Source : دوربین مداربسته