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Liquid vegetable oils into solid fats

Jan 20th 2014 at 3:55 AM

In 1901, the German chemist Wilhelm Norman applied this method for the processing of liquid vegetable oils into solid fats, and in 1902 received a patent.
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The hydrogenation process (hydrogenation) occurs by passing hydrogen under pressure through oil heated to a high temperature (about 200C). In this part of the unsaturated fatty acids are converted into saturated.

In 1909, the right to use the technology company repurchased «Procter & Gamble», which soon launched «Crisco» - a new cooking oil containing a significant percentage of hydrogenated cottonseed oil. In order to stimulate demand, the company has released several cookbooks containing recipes using this product.

In Russia, the first plant for hydrogenation of oils was built in 1909 in Kazan, based on technology developed by SA Fokine. True, it does not receive raw materials for the food industry, and for soap making. Initially hydrogenated oil doctors found not only completely harmless, but even began to recommend as a healthy alternative to animal fat.

No one is confused by the fact that the partial hydrogenation changes the spatial structure of molecules: a significant portion of unsaturated fatty acids (60%) passes from the cis form to the trans form. From the point of view of manufacturers of margarine accumulation trans isomers affect the properties of fat only positive, because it leads to an increase in melting point and hardness.

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