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DRIVING STREET

Sep 6th 2010 at 5:35 PM


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THE HIGHWAY CODE System.
A.N.P. From the desk of Paulhere70.

INTRODUCTION.
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Eco-safe driving
A congestion charge scheme was
introduced into London to ease congestion
in the City. Not all drivers have to pay the
charge, some of those who are exempt
include
- residents living within the zone
- disabled people who hold a blue badge
- drivers of electrically propelled or
alternative fuel vehicles
- riders of two wheelers
Transport is an essential part of our lives
and most of us appreciate this does not
come without certain environmental
consequences. In particular, the emissions
produced by vehicles cause significant air
pollution and are a major contributor to
global warming. Eco-safe driving is a
style of driving that will help to reduce this
damage to our planet and the air we breath
whilst improving road safety. Transport
currently accounts for 20% of all air
pollution emissions in the world. Eco-safe
driving is not about driving at lower speeds
(although this would undoubtedly help to
reduce fuel consumption and accidents) it
is more about avoiding senseless wastage
of fuel through unnecessary acceleration or
braking, inefficient use of the gears and
speeding (i.e. exceeding permitted limits or
driving at speeds unsafe for the prevailing
conditions).
When you accelerate quickly or rapidly
you disproportionately use more fuel.
Accelerating rapidly allows you to gain
speed in a shorter space of time, however,
that saving in time costs you dearly in fuel.
The accelerator can be compared to a tap
handle in that it controls the flow of fuel to
the engine. The harder you depress the
pedal the faster the fuel will flow. If the
accelerator can be compared to a tap
Highway Code supplementry notes
41
handle then each gear can be compared to
a different tap size. First gear is a very
large wide tap and fifth gear is a very small
narrow tap. Therefore the more you need
to use the big wide taps (i.e. the lower
gears) the more fuel you will use when you
turn the handle (i.e. depress the
accelerator). You particularly use more fuel
when you accelerate from a standstill
because more energy is needed to move a
static object than one that is already
moving and has momentum. This is why
first gear is required to move a stationary
vehicle.
The skills required for hazard perception,
defensive driving and progressive driving
play a big part in Eco-safe driving as they
will help you to avoid inefficient use of the
accelerator, brake and gears through better
awareness, anticipation and planning. In
particular to be Eco friendly you need to:
Minimise harsh or rapid acceleration.
Whenever it is safe to do so, gradually
increase speed by gently depressing the
accelerator. Look well ahead to see what is
happening, to ensure that any acceleration
now, will not be wasted a little later on
because you have to brake. Let gravity aid
you so that if you are going down hill you
may find you can fully release pressure on
the accelerator and still maintain a safe
speed. With your foot fully off the
accelerator the engine needs very little
fuel, so take advantage of engine braking
wherever possible. Avoid using
acceleration to exceed legal speed limits or
driving faster than it is safe for the
prevailing road, traffic or weather
conditions as this may not only cost you
more fuel it may cost you your life.
Vehicles travelling at 70 mph use up to
30% more fuel to cover the same distance
as those travelling at 50 mph.
Minimise harsh braking or unnecessary
stopping. Look well ahead and if you see
that you will need to reduce speed, do it
gradually using engine braking rather than
applying the brake at the last minute.
Gradually adjust your speed to time your
arrival at meet situations or when turning
right such that you can potentially
maintain progress and avoid having to
stop. Similarly, you can do this when
emerging from a give way junction
provided you have a good view of the road
you intend to emerge into as you approach
the junction.
Engage higher gears as soon as possible
without labouring the engine. Avoid
engaging unnecessary intermediate gear
changes so that you can more quickly
engage higher gears or delay engaging
lower gears. Modern cars are designed to
deliver power even when engine revs are
quite low and provided you haven't lost
momentum as you slow down you will be
surprised how late you can leave a
downward gear change without risking an
engine stall.
Cold engines use more fuel; therefore
avoid manoeuvring whilst the engine is
cold if at all possible. Do any manoeuvring
before you get out of the vehicle rather
then when you return to the vehicle (for
example by reversing into parking places
or driveways rather than reversing out).
Not only does this save fuel, it is also a
much safer way to emerge onto a road.
Finally, if you need to use a manual choke
to start the vehicle, always remember to
press it back in once the engine is
sufficiently warm. When driving
remember, safety is paramount, so never
sacrifice safety for fuel saving.
42
Other ways you can save fuel include
making sure your vehicle is properly
maintained, that tyre pressures are correct
and that no objects are fastened to the
vehicle that will cause drag. Before
making any journey carefully plan your
route to avoid any known hold ups or road
works. This will help you save fuel by
avoiding slow moving queuing traffic.
Therefore Eco-safe drivers do not:
- Rev-up the engine whilst waiting to
move off.
- Use excessive acceleration to move off
at speed as if competing in a race.
- Tailgate vehicles resulting in continual
harsh braking and acceleration.
- Wait until the last minute to react to
hazards including junctions ahead by
braking harshly.
- Peak the revs in each gear to obtain
maximum acceleration.
- Rush to overtake at each and every
opportunity even on congested roads
where little benefit will be gained.
- Eco-safe driving is the exact opposite of
rally, drag or formula one racing
driving.
When done properly Eco-safe driving can
save up to 15% on your fuel bill while
helping road safety. So save money, save
lives, save our planet - adopt an Eco-safe
style of driving.

 



The Highway Code System

Plus
Make your first test your last
Copyright message
The Highway Code Plus is reproduced under the terms of Crown Copyright
Policy Guidance issued by HMSO and the Queen’s Printer in Scotland.
Crown Copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the
controller of HMSO under licence number C02W2221233. All rights
reserved. No part of these web pages may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by an means: electric,
electrostatic, internet, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopy, recording,
www. or otherwise without the permission in writing from HMSO’s copyright
unit.
Introduction
This Highway Code applies to England, Scotland and Wales. The Highway
Code is essential reading for everyone.
The most vulnerable road users are pedestrians, particularly children, older
or disabled people, cyclists, motorcyclists and horse riders. It is important
that all road users are aware of the Code and are considerate towards each
other. This applies to pedestrians as much as to drivers and riders.
Many of the rules in the Code are legal requirements, and if you disobey
these rules you are committing a criminal offence. You may be fined, given
penalty points on your licence or be disqualified from driving. In the most
serious cases you may be sent to prison. Such rules are identified by the
use of the words ' '. In addition, the rule includes an
abbreviated reference to the legislation which creates the offence. An
explanation of the abbreviations can be found in, 'The road user and the
law'.
Although failure to comply with the other rules of the Code will not, in itself,
cause a person to be prosecuted, The Highway Code may be used in
evidence in any court proceedings under the Traffic Acts ( see 'The road
user and the law' ) to establish liability. This includes rules which use
advisory wording such as 'should/should not' or 'do/do not'.
Knowing and applying the rules contained in The Highway Code could
significantly reduce road casualties. Cutting the number of deaths and
injuries that occur on our roads every day is a responsibility we all share.
The Highway Code can help us discharge that responsibility. Further
information on driving/riding techniques can be found in The Official DSA
Guide to Driving - the essential skills and The Official DSA Guide to Riding -
the essential skills.
MUST/MUST NOT
3
The Highway Code +
Rules for pedestrians
Rules for users of powered wheelchairs and mobility scooters
Rules about animals
Rules for cyclists
Rules for motorcyclists
Rules for drivers and motorcyclists
General rules, techniques and advice for all drivers and riders
Using the road
Road users requiring extra care
Driving in adverse weather conditions
Waiting and parking
Motorways
Breakdowns and incidents
Road works
Level crossings
Tramways
Light signals controlling traffic
Signals to other road users
Signals by authorised persons
Traffic signs
Road markings
Vehicle markings
Annexes
1. You and your bicycle
2. Motorcycle licence requirements
3. Motor vehicle documentation and learner driver requirements
4. The road user and the law
5. Penalties
6. Vehicle maintenance, safety and security
7. First aid on the road
8. Safety code for new drivers
Supplementary Notes
5
11
13
15
19
21
25
35
43
47
49
53
57
61
63
65
67
68
69
71
79
82
83
93
Contents:
4
5
Rules for pedestrians
General guidance
1. Pavements (including any path along
the side of a road) should be used if
provided. Where possible, avoid being
next to the kerb with your back to the
traffic. If you have to step into the road,
look both ways first. Always show due
care and consideration for others.
2. If there is no pavement, keep to the
right-hand side of the road so that you
can see oncoming traffic. You should
take extra care and
be prepared to walk in single file,
especially on narrow roads or in poor
light
keep close to the side of the road.
It may be safer to cross the road well
before a sharp right-hand bend so that
oncoming traffic has a better chance of
seeing you. Cross back after the bend.
3. Help other road users to see you.
Wear or carry something light-coloured,
bright or fluorescent in poor daylight
conditions. When it is dark, use reflective
materials (e.g. armbands, sashes,
waistcoats, jackets, footwear), which can
be seen by drivers using headlights up to
three times as far away as non-reflective
materials.
4. Young children should not be out alone
on the pavement or road (see Rule 7).
When taking children out, keep between
them and the traffic and hold their hands
firmly. Strap very young children into
push-chairs or use reins. When pushing
a young child in a buggy, do not push the
buggy into the road when checking to
see if it is clear to cross, particularly from
between parked vehicles.
!
!
5. Organised walks. Large groups of
people walking together should use a
pavement if available; if one is not, they
should keep to the left. Look-outs should
be positioned at the front and back of the
group, and they should wear fluorescent
clothes in daylight and reflective clothes
in the dark. At night, the look-out in front
should show a white light and the one at
the back a red light. People on the
outside of large groups should also carry
lights and wear reflective clothing.
6. Motorways. Pedestrians be
on motorways or slip roads except in an
emergency (see Rules 271 and 275).
7. The Green Cross Code. The advice
given below on crossing the road is for
all pedestrians. Children should be
taught the Code and should not be
allowed out alone until they can
understand and use it properly. The age
when they can do this is different for
each child. Many children cannot judge
how fast vehicles are going or how far
away they are. Children learn by
example, so parents and carers should
always use the Code in full when out
with their children. They are responsible
for deciding at what age children can use
it safely by themselves.
A. First find a safe place to cross and
where there is space to reach the
pavement on the other side. Where there
is a crossing nearby, use it. It is safer to
cross using a subway, a footbridge, an
island, a zebra, pelican, toucan or puffin
crossing, or where there is a crossing
point controlled by a police officer, a
school crossing patrol or a traffic warden.
Otherwise choose a place where you can
see clearly in all directions. Try to avoid
crossing between parked cars (see Rule
14), on a blind bend, or close to the brow
of a hill. Move to a space where drivers
and riders can see you clearly. Do not
cross the road diagonally.
MUST NOT
Laws RTRA sect 17, MT(E&W)R 1982 as amended,
reg 15(1)(b) & MT(S)R reg 13
Crossing the road
6 Rules for pedestrians B. Stop just before you get to the kerb,
where you can see if anything is coming.
Do not get too close to the traffic. If
there's no pavement, keep back from the
edge of the road but make sure you can
still see approaching traffic.
C. Look all around for traffic and listen.
Traffic could come from any direction.
Listen as well, because you can
sometimes hear traffic before you see it.
D. If traffic is coming, let it pass. Look all
around again and listen. Do not cross
until there is a safe gap in the traffic and
you are certain that there is plenty of
time. Remember, even if traffic is a long
way off, it may be approaching very
quickly.
E. When it is safe, go straight across the
road - do not run. Keep looking and
listening for traffic while you cross, in
case there is any traffic you did not see,
or in case other traffic appears suddenly.
Look out for cyclists and motorcyclists
travelling between lanes of traffic. Do not
walk diagonally across the road.
8. At a junction. When crossing the road,
look out for traffic turning into the road,
especially from behind you. If you have
started crossing and traffic wants to turn
into the road, you have priority and they
should give way (see Rule 170).
9. Pedestrian Safety Barriers. Where
there are barriers, cross the road only at
the gaps provided for pedestrians. Do
not climb over the barriers or walk
between them and the road.
10. Tactile paving. Raised surfaces that can
be felt underfoot provide warning and
guidance to blind or partially sighted
people. The most common surfaces are
a series of raised studs, which are used
at crossing points with a dropped kerb,
or a series of rounded raised bars which
are used at level crossings, at the top
and bottom of steps and at some other
hazards.
11. One-way streets. Check which way the
traffic is moving. Do not cross until it is
safe to do so without stopping. Bus and
cycle lanes may operate in the opposite
direction to the rest of the traffic.
12. Bus and cycle lanes. Take care when
crossing these lanes as traffic may be
moving faster than in the other lanes, or
against the flow of traffic.
13. Routes shared with cyclists. Some
cycle tracks run alongside footpaths or
pavements, using a segregating feature
to separate cyclists from people on foot.
Segregated routes may also incorporate
short lengths of tactile paving to help
visually impaired people stay on the
correct side. On the pedestrian side this
will comprise a series of flat-topped bars
running across the direction of travel
(ladder pattern). On the cyclist side the
same bars are orientated in the direction
of travel (tramline pattern). Not all routes
which are shared with cyclists are
segregated. Take extra care where this
is so (see Rule 62).
14. Parked vehicles. If you have to cross
between parked vehicles, use the
outside edges of the vehicles as if they
were the kerb. Stop there and make sure
you can see all around and that the
traffic can see you. Make sure there is a
gap between any parked vehicles on the
other side, so you can reach the
pavement. Never cross the road in front
of, or behind, any vehicle with its engine
running, especially a large vehicle, as
the driver may not be able to see you.
15. Reversing vehicles. Never cross behind
a vehicle which is reversing, showing
white reversing lights or sounding a
warning.
16. Moving vehicles. You get
onto or hold onto a moving vehicle.
MUST NOT
Law RTA 1988 sect 26
7
Rules for pedestrians
17. At night. Wear something reflective to
make it easier for others to see you (see
Rule 3). If there is no pedestrian
crossing nearby, cross the road near a
street light so that traffic can see you
more easily.
18. At all crossings. When using any type
of crossing you should
always check that the traffic has stopped
before you start to cross or push a pram
onto a crossing
always cross between the studs or over
the zebra markings. Do not cross at the
side of the crossing or on the zig-zag
lines, as it can be dangerous.
You loiter on any type of
crossing.
19. Zebra crossings. Give traffic plenty of
time to see you and to stop before you
start to cross. Vehicles will need more
time when the road is slippery. Wait until
traffic has stopped from both directions
or the road is clear before crossing.
Remember that traffic does not have to
stop until someone has moved onto the
crossing. Keep looking both ways, and
listening, in case a driver or rider has not
seen you and attempts to overtake a
vehicle that has stopped.
Crossings
!
!
MUST NOT
Laws ZPPPCRGD reg 19 & RTRA sect 25(5)
20. Where there is an island in the middle of
a zebra crossing, wait on the island and
follow Rule 19 before you cross the
second half of the road - it is a separate
crossing.
21. At traffic lights. There may be special
signals for pedestrians. You should only
start to cross the road when the green
figure shows. If you have started to cross
the road and the green figure goes out,
you should still have time to reach the
other side, but do not delay. If no
pedestrian signals have been provided,
watch carefully and do not cross until the
traffic lights are red and the traffic has
stopped. Keep looking and check for
traffic that may be turning the corner.
Remember that traffic lights may let
traffic move in some lanes while traffic in
other lanes has stopped.
22. Pelican crossings. These are signalcontrolled
crossings operated by
pedestrians. Push the control button to
activate the traffic signals. When the red
figure shows, do not cross. When a
steady green figure shows, check the
traffic has stopped then cross with care.
When the green figure begins to flash
you should not start to cross. If you have
already started you should have time to
finish crossing safely.
8 Rules for pedestrians 23. Puffin crossings differ from pelican
crossings as the red and green figures
are above the control box on your side of
the road and there is no flashing green
figure phase. Press the button and wait
for the green figure to show.
24. When the road is congested, traffic on
your side of the road may be forced to
stop even though their lights are green.
Traffic may still be moving on the other
side of the road, so press the button and
wait for the signal to cross.
25. Toucan crossings are light-controlled
crossings which allow cyclists and
pedestrians to share crossing space and
cross at the same time. They are pushbutton
operated. Pedestrians and
cyclists will see the green signal
together. Cyclists are permitted to ride
across.
26. At some crossings there is a bleeping
sound or voice signal to indicate to blind
or partially sighted people when the
steady green figure is showing, and
there may be a tactile signal to help
deafblind people.
27. Equestrian crossings are for horse
riders. They have pavement barriers,
wider crossing spaces, horse and rider
figures in the light panels and either two
sets of controls (one higher), or just one
higher control panel.
28. 'Staggered' pelican or puffin
crossings. When the crossings on each
side of the central refuge are not in line
they are two separate crossings. On
reaching the central island, press the
button again and wait for a steady green
figure.
29. Crossings controlled by an authorised
person. Do not cross the road unless
you are signalled to do so by a police
officer, traffic warden or school crossing
patrol. Always cross in front of them.
30. Where there are no controlled crossing
points available it is advisable to cross
where there is an island in the middle of
the road. Use the Green Cross Code
(see Rule 7) to cross to the island and
then stop and use it again to cross the
second half of the road.
31. Emergency vehicles. If an ambulance,
fire engine, police or other emergency
vehicle approaches using flashing blue
lights, headlights and/or sirens, keep off
the road.
32. Buses. Get on or off a bus only when it
has stopped to allow you to do so. Watch
out for cyclists when you are getting off.
Never cross the road directly behind or in
front of a bus. Wait until it has moved off
and you can see clearly in both
directions.
33. Tramways. These may run through
pedestrian areas. Their path will be
marked out by shallow kerbs, changes in
the paving or other road surface, white
lines or yellow dots. Cross at designated
crossings where provided. Elsewhere
treat trams as you would other road
vehicles and look both ways along the
track before crossing. Do not walk along
the track as trams may come up behind
Situations needing extra care
9
Rules for pedestrians
you. Trams move quietly and cannot
steer to avoid you.
34. Railway level crossings. You
cross or pass a stop line when the
red lights show, (including a red
pedestrian figure). Also do not cross if an
alarm is sounding or the barriers are
being lowered. The tone of the alarm
may change if another train is
approaching. If there are no lights,
alarms or barriers, stop, look both ways
and listen before crossing. A tactile
surface comprising rounded bars running
across the direction of pedestrian travel
may be installed on the footpath
approaching a level crossing to warn
visually impaired people of its presence.
The tactile surface should extend across
the full width of the footway and should
be located at an appropriate distance
from the barrier or projected line of the
barrier.
35. Street and pavement repairs. A
pavement may be closed temporarily
because it is not safe to use. Take extra
care if you are directed to walk in or to
cross the road.
MUST
NOT
Law TSRGD, reg 52
10 Rules for pedestrians
11
Rules for users of powered wheelchairs and
powered mobility scooters
(Called Invalid Carriages in law)
On pavements
On the road
36. There is one class of manual wheelchair
(called a Class 1 invalid carriage) and
two classes of powered wheelchairs and
powered mobility scooters. Manual
wheelchairs and Class 2 vehicles are
those with an upper speed limit of 4 mph
(6 km/h) and are designed to be used on
pavements. Class 3 vehicles are those
with an upper speed limit of 8 mph (12
km/h) and are equipped to be used on
the road as well as the pavement.
37. When you are on the road you should
obey the guidance and rules for other
vehicles; when on the pavement you
should follow the guidance and rules for
pedestrians.
38. Pavements are safer than roads and
should be used when available. You
should give pedestrians priority and
show consideration for other pavement
users, particularly those with a hearing
or visual impairment who may not be
aware that you are there.
39. Powered wheelchairs and scooters
travel faster than 4 mph (6
km/h) on pavements or in pedestrian
areas. You may need to reduce your
speed to adjust to other pavement users
who may not be able to move out of your
way quickly enough or where the
pavement is too narrow.
40. When moving off the pavement onto the
road, you should take special care.
Before moving off, always look round
and make sure it's safe to join the traffic.
Always try to use dropped kerbs when
moving off the pavement, even if this
means travelling further to locate one. If
you have to climb or descend a kerb,
always approach it at right angles and
don't try to negotiate a kerb higher than
the vehicle manufacturer's
recommendations.
41. You should take care when travelling on
the road as you may be travelling more
MUST NOT
Law UICHR 1988 reg 4
slowly than other traffic (your machine is
restricted to 8 mph (12 km/h) and may
be less visible).
42. When on the road, Class 3 vehicles
should travel in the direction of the
traffic. Class 2 users should always use
the pavement when it is available. When
there is no pavement, you should use
caution when on the road. Class 2 users
should, where possible, travel in the
direction of the traffic. If you are
travelling at night when lights be
used, you should travel in the direction
of the traffic to avoid confusing other
road users.
43. You follow the same rules about
using lights, indicators and horns as for
other road vehicles, if your vehicle is
fitted with them. At night, lights be
used. Be aware that other road users
may not see you and you should make
yourself more visible - even in the
daytime and also at dusk - by, for
instance, wearing a reflective jacket or
reflective strips on the back of the
vehicle.
44. Take extra care at road junctions. When
going straight ahead, check to make
sure there are no vehicles about to cross
your path from the left, the right, or
overtaking you and turning left. There
are several options for dealing with right
turns, especially turning from a major
road. If moving into the middle of the
road is difficult or dangerous, you can
! stop on the left-hand side of the road and
wait for a safe gap in the traffic
! negotiate the turn as a pedestrian, i.e.
travel along the pavement and cross the
road between pavements where it is
safe to do so. Class 3 users should
switch the vehicle to the lower speed
limit when on pavements.
If the junction is too hazardous, it may be
worth considering an alternative route.
Similarly, when negotiating major
roundabouts (i.e. with two or more lanes)
it may be safer for you to use the
pavement or find a route which avoids
the roundabout altogether.
MUST
Law UICHR 1988 reg 9
MUST
MUST
Law UICHR 1988 reg 9
12 Rules for users of powered wheelchairs and powered mobility
scooters
45. All normal parking restrictions should be
observed. Your vehicle should not be left
unattended if it causes an obstruction to
other pedestrians - especially those in
wheelchairs. Parking concessions
provided under the Blue Badge scheme
will apply to those vehicles displaying a
valid badge.
46. These vehicles be used on
motorways (See Rule 253). They should
not be used on unrestricted dual
carriageways where the speed limit
exceeds 50 mph (80 km/h) but if they
are used on these dual carriageways,
they have a flashing amber
beacon. A flashing amber beacon should
be used on all other dual carriageways
(see Rule 220).
MUST NOT
MUST
Laws RTRA sect 17(2) & (3), & RVLR reg 17(1) & 26
13
Rules about animals
Horse-drawn vehicles
Horse riders
47. Horse-drawn vehicles used on the
highway should be operated and
maintained in accordance with standards
set out in the Department for Transport's
Code of Practice for Horse-Drawn
Vehicles. This Code lays down the
requirements for a road driving
assessment and includes a
comprehensive list of safety checks to
ensure that a carriage and its fittings are
safe and in good working order. The
standards set out in the Road Driving
Assessment may be required to be met
by a Local Authority if an operator
wishes to obtain a local authority licence
to operate a passenger-carrying service.
48. Safety equipment and clothing. All
horse-drawn vehicles should have two
red rear reflectors. It is safer not to drive
at night but if you do, a light showing
white to the front and red to the rear
be fitted.
49. Safety equipment. Children under the
age of 14 wear a helmet which
complies with the Regulations. It
be fastened securely. Other riders
should also follow these requirements.
These requirements do not apply to a
child who is a follower of the Sikh
religion while wearing a turban.
50. Other clothing. You should wear
! boots or shoes with hard soles and heels
! light-coloured or fluorescent clothing in
daylight
! reflective clothing if you have to ride at
night or in poor visibility.
MUST
Law RVLR 1989 reg 4
MUST
MUST
Laws H(PHYR) Act 1990, sect 1 & H(PHYR)
Regulations 1992, reg 3
51. At night. It is safer not to ride on the
road at night or in poor visibility, but if
you do, make sure you wear reflective
clothing and your horse has reflective
bands above the fetlock joints. A light
which shows white to the front and red to
the rear should be fitted, with a band, to
the rider's right arm and/or leg/riding
boot. If you are leading a horse at night,
carry a light in your right hand, showing
white to the front and red to the rear, and
wear reflective clothing on both you and
your horse. It is strongly recommended
that a fluorescent/reflective tail guard is
also worn by your horse.
52. Before you take a horse on to a road,
you should
! ensure all tack fits well and is in good
condition
! make sure you can control the horse.
Always ride with other, less nervous
horses if you think that your horse will be
nervous of traffic. Never ride a horse
without both a saddle and bridle.
53. Before riding off or turning, look behind
you to make sure it is safe, then give a
clear arm signal.
When riding on the road you should
! keep to the left
! keep both hands on the reins unless you
are signalling
! keep both feet in the stirrups
! not carry another person
! not carry anything which might affect
your balance or get tangled up with the
reins
! keep a horse you are leading to your left
! move in the direction of the traffic flow in
a one-way street
! never ride more than two abreast, and
ride in single file on narrow or busy
roads and when riding round bends.
54. You take a horse onto a
footpath or pavement, and you should
not take a horse onto a cycle track. Use
a bridleway where possible. Equestrian
crossings may be provided for horse
riders to cross the road and you should
Riding
MUST NOT
14
use these where available (See Rule
27). You should dismount at level
crossings where a 'Horse Rider
Dismount' sign is displayed.
55. Avoid roundabouts wherever possible. If
you use them you should
! keep to the left and watch out for
vehicles crossing your path to leave or
join the roundabout
! signal right when riding across exits to
show you are not leaving
! signal left just before you leave the
roundabout.
56. Dogs. Do not let a dog out on the road
on its own. Keep it on a short lead when
walking on the pavement, road or path
shared with cyclists or horse riders.
57. When in a vehicle make sure dogs or
other animals are suitably restrained so
they cannot distract you while you are
driving or injure you, or themselves, if
you stop quickly. A seat belt harness, pet
carrier, dog cage or dog guard are ways
of restraining animals in cars.
58. Animals being herded. These should
be kept under control at all times. You
should, if possible, send another person
along the road in front to warn other road
users, especially at a bend or the brow
of a hill. It is safer not to move animals
after dark, but if you do, then wear
reflective clothing and ensure that lights
are carried (white at the front and red at
the rear of the herd).
Laws HA 1835 sect 72, R(S)A 1984, sect 129(5)
Other animals
Rules about animals
15
These rules are in addition to those in the
following sections, which apply to all vehicles
(except the motorway section). See also
Annexe 1, You and your bicycle.
59. Clothing. You should wear
! a cycle helmet which conforms to current
regulations, is the correct size and
securely fastened
! appropriate clothes for cycling. Avoid
clothes which may get tangled in the
chain, or in a wheel or may obscure your
lights
! light-coloured or fluorescent clothing
which helps other road users to see you
in daylight and poor light
! reflective clothing and/or accessories
(belt, arm or ankle bands) in the dark.
60. At night your cycle have white
front and red rear lights lit. It also
be fitted with a red rear reflector (and
amber pedal reflectors, if manufactured
after 1/10/85). White front reflectors and
spoke reflectors will also help you to be
seen. Flashing lights are permitted but it
is recommended that cyclists who are
riding in areas without street lighting use
a steady front lamp.
61. Cycle Routes and Other Facilities. Use
cycle routes, advanced stop lines, cycle
boxes and toucan crossings unless at
the time it is unsafe to do so. Use of
these facilities is not compulsory and will
depend on your experience and skills,
but they can make your journey safer.
62. Cycle Tracks. These are normally
located away from the road, but may
occasionally be found alongside
footpaths or pavements. Cyclists and
pedestrians may be segregated or they
may share the same space
MUST
MUST
Law RVLR regs 13, 18 & 24
Rules for cyclists
(unsegregated). When using segregated
tracks you keep to the side
intended for cyclists as the pedestrian
side remains a pavement or footpath.
Take care when passing pedestrians,
especially children, older or disabled
people, and allow them plenty of room.
Always be prepared to slow down and
stop if necessary. Take care near road
junctions as you may have difficulty
seeing other road users, who might not
notice you.
63. Cycle Lanes. These are marked by a
white line (which may be broken) along
the carriageway (see Rule 140 ). Keep
within the lane when practicable. When
leaving a cycle lane check before pulling
out that it is safe to do so and signal your
intention clearly to other road users. Use
of cycle lanes is not compulsory and will
depend on your experience and skills,
but they can make your journey safer.
64. You cycle on a pavement.
65. Bus Lanes. Most bus lanes may be
used by cyclists as indicated on signs.
Watch out for people getting on or off a
bus. Be very careful when overtaking a
bus or leaving a bus lane as you will be
entering a busier traffic flow. Do not pass
between the kerb and a bus when it is at
a stop.
66. You should
! keep both hands on the handlebars
except when signalling or changing gear
! keep both feet on the pedals
! never ride more than two abreast, and
ride in single file on narrow or busy
roads and when riding round bends
! not ride close behind another vehicle
! not carry anything which will affect your
balance or may get tangled up with your
wheels or chain
! be considerate of other road users,
particularly blind and partially sighted
pedestrians. Let them know you are
there when necessary, for example, by
ringing your bell if you have one. It is
recommended that a bell be fitted.
MUST
Law HA 1835 sect 72
MUST NOT
Laws HA 1835 sect 72 & R(S)A 1984, sect 129
16
67. You should
! look all around before moving away from
the kerb, turning or manoeuvring, to
make sure it is safe to do so. Give a
clear signal to show other road users
what you intend to do (see 'Signals to
other road users')
! look well ahead for obstructions in the
road, such as drains, pot-holes and
parked vehicles so that you do not have
to swerve suddenly to avoid them. Leave
plenty of room when passing parked
vehicles and watch out for doors being
opened or pedestrians stepping into your
path
! be aware of traffic coming up behind you
! take extra care near road humps,
narrowing's and other traffic calming
features
! take care when overtaking (see Rules
162-169).
68. You
! carry a passenger unless your cycle has
been built or adapted to carry one
! hold onto a moving vehicle or trailer
! ride in a dangerous, careless or
inconsiderate manner8
! ride when under the influence of drink or
drugs, including medicine.
69. You obey all traffic signs and
traffic light signals.
70. When parking your cycle
! find a conspicuous location where it can
be seen by passers-by
! use cycle stands or other cycle parking
facilities wherever possible
! do not leave it where it would cause an
obstruction or hazard to other road users
! secure it well so that it will not fall over
and become an obstruction or hazard.
71. You cross the stop line when
the traffic lights are red. Some junctions
have an advanced stop line to enable
you to wait and position yourself ahead
of other traffic (see Rule 178).
MUST NOT
Law RTA 1988 sects 24, 26, 28, 29 & 30 as amended
by RTA 1991
MUST
Laws RTA 1988 sect 36 & TSRGD reg 10(1)
MUST NOT
Road junctions
Roundabouts
72. On the left. When approaching a
junction on the left, watch out for
vehicles turning in front of you, out of or
into the side road. Just before you turn,
check for undertaking cyclists or
motorcyclists. Do not ride on the inside
of vehicles signalling or slowing down to
turn left.
73. Pay particular attention to long vehicles
which need a lot of room to manoeuvre
at corners. Be aware that drivers may
not see you. They may have to move
over to the right before turning left. Wait
until they have completed the
manoeuvre because the rear wheels
come very close to the kerb while
turning. Do not be tempted to ride in the
space between them and the kerb.
74. On the right. If you are turning right,
check the traffic to ensure it is safe, then
signal and move to the centre of the
road. Wait until there is a safe gap in the
oncoming traffic and give a final look
before completing the turn. It may be
safer to wait on the left until there is a
safe gap or to dismount and push your
cycle across the road.
75. Dual carriageways. Remember that
traffic on most dual carriageways moves
quickly. When crossing wait for a safe
gap and cross each carriageway in turn.
Take extra care when crossing slip
roads.
76. Full details about the correct procedure
at roundabouts are contained in Rules
184-190. Roundabouts can be
hazardous and should be approached
with care.
77. You may feel safer walking your cycle
round on the pavement or verge. If you
decide to ride round keeping to the lefthand
lane you should
! be aware that drivers may not easily see
you
! take extra care when cycling across
exits. You may need to signal right to
show you are not leaving the roundabout
Rules for cyclists
17
Rules for cyclists
! watch out for vehicles crossing your path
to leave or join the roundabout.
78. Give plenty of room to long vehicles on
the roundabout as they need more
space to manoeuvre. Do not ride in the
space they need to get round the
roundabout. It may be safer to wait until
they have cleared the roundabout.
79. Do not ride across equestrian crossings,
as they are for horse riders only. Do not
ride across a pelican, puffin or zebra
crossing. Dismount and wheel your cycle
across.
80. Toucan crossings. These are lightcontrolled
crossings which allow cyclists
and pedestrians to share crossing space
and cross at the same time. They are
push-button operated. Pedestrians and
cyclists will see the green signal
together. Cyclists are permitted to ride
across.
81. Cycle-only crossings. Cycle tracks on
opposite sides of the road may be linked
by signalled crossings. You may ride
across but you cross until
the green cycle symbol is showing.
82. Level crossings/Tramways. Take extra
care when crossing the tracks (See Rule
306). You should dismount at level
crossings where a 'Cyclist Dismount'
sign is displayed.
Crossing the road
MUST NOT
Law TSRGD regs 33(2) & 36(1)
18
Rules for cyclists
19
Rules for motorcyclists
These Rules are in addition to those in the
following sections which apply to all vehicles.
For motorcycle licence requirements.
General
On all journeys, the rider and pillion
passenger on a motorcycle, scooter or
moped wear a protective helmet. This
does not apply to a follower of the Sikh
religion while wearing a turban. Helmets
comply with the Regulations and they
be fastened securely. Riders and
passengers of motor tricycles and
quadricycles, also called quadbikes, should
also wear a protective helmet. Before each
journey check that your helmet visor is clean
and in good condition.
84. It is also advisable to wear eye
protectors, which comply with the
Regulations. Scratched or poorly fitting
eye protectors can limit your view when
riding, particularly in bright sunshine and
the hours of darkness. Consider wearing
ear protection. Strong boots, gloves and
suitable clothing may help to protect you
if you are involved in a collision.
85. You carry more than one
pillion passenger who sit astride
the machine on a proper seat. They
should face forward with both feet on the
footrests. You carry a pillion
passenger unless your motor cycle is
designed to do so. Provisional licence
holders carry a pillion
passenger.
86. Daylight riding. Make yourself as visible
as possible from the side as well as the
front and rear. You could wear a light or
brightly coloured helmet and fluorescent
clothing or strips. Dipped headlights,
even in good daylight, may also make
you more conspicuous. However, be
aware that other vehicle drivers may still
not have seen you, or judged your
distance or speed correctly, especially at
junctions.
MUST
MUST
MUST
Laws RTA 1988 sects 16 & 17 & MC(PH)R as amended reg
4
MUST
RTA sect 18 & MC(EP)R as amended reg 4
MUST NOT
MUST
MUST NOT
MUST NOT
Laws RTA 1988 sect 23, MV(DL)R 1999 reg 16(6) &
CUR 1986 reg 102
87. Riding in the dark. Wear reflective
clothing or strips to improve your visibility
in the dark. These reflect light from the
headlamps of other vehicles, making you
visible from a longer distance. See Rules
113-116 for lighting requirements.
88. Manoeuvring. You should be aware of
what is behind and to the sides before
manoeuvring. Look behind you; use
mirrors if they are fitted. When in traffic
queues look out for pedestrians crossing
between vehicles and vehicles emerging
from junctions or changing lanes.
Position yourself so that drivers can see
you in their mirrors. Additionally, when
filtering in slow-moving traffic, take care
and keep your speed low.
Remember:
Observation - Signal - Manoeuvre
20
Rules for motorcyclists
21
Rules for drivers and motorcyclists
89. Vehicle condition. You ensure
your vehicle and trailer comply with the
full requirements of the Road Vehicles
(Construction and Use) Regulations and
Road Vehicles Lighting Regulations
(see 'The road user and the law').
90. Make sure that you are fit to drive. You
report to the Driver and Vehicle
Licensing Agency (DVLA) any health
condition likely to affect your driving.
91. Driving when you are tired greatly
increases your risk of collision. To
minimise this risk
make sure you are fit to drive. Do not
begin a journey if you are tired. Get a
good night's sleep before embarking on
a long journey
! avoid undertaking long journeys
between midnight and 6 am, when
natural alertness is at a minimum
! plan your journey to take sufficient
breaks. A minimum break of at least 15
minutes after every two hours of driving
is recommended
! if you feel at all sleepy, stop in a safe
place. Do not stop on the hard shoulder
of a motorway
! the most effective ways to counter
sleepiness are to drink, for example, two
cups of caffeinated coffee and to take a
short nap (at least 15 minutes).
92. Vision. You be able to read a
vehicle number plate, in good daylight,
from a distance of 20 metres (or 20.5
metres where the old style number plate
is used). If you need to wear glasses (or
contact lenses) to do this, you
wear them at all times while driving. The
police have the power to require a driver
to undertake an eyesight test.
93. Slow down, and if necessary stop, if you
are dazzled by bright sunlight.
94. At night or in poor visibility, do not use
tinted glasses, lenses or visors if they
restrict your vision.
MUST
MUST
Law RTA 1988 sect 94
MUST
MUST
Laws RTA 1988 sect 96 & MV(DL)R reg 40 & sch 8
Fitness to drive
!
Alcohol and drugs
95. Do not drink and drive as it will
seriously affect your judgement and
abilities. You drive with a
breath alcohol level higher than 35
microgrammes/100 millilitres of breath
or a blood alcohol level of more than 80
milligrammes/100 millilitres of blood.
Alcohol will
! give a false sense of confidence
! reduce co-ordination and slow down
reactions
! affect judgement of speed, distance and
risk
! reduce your driving ability, even if you're
below the legal limit
! take time to leave your body; you may
be unfit to drive in the evening after
drinking at lunchtime, or in the morning
after drinking the previous evening.
! The best solution is not to drink at all
when planning to drive because any
amount of alcohol affects your ability to
drive safely. If you are going to drink,
arrange another means of transport.
96. You drive under the
influence of drugs or medicine. Check
the instructions or ask your doctor or
pharmacist. Using illegal drugs is highly
dangerous. Never take them if you
intend to drive; the effects are
unpredictable, but can be even more
severe than alcohol and may result in
fatal or serious road crashes.
97. Before setting off. You should ensure
that
you have planned your route and
allowed sufficient time
! clothing and footwear do not prevent
you using the controls in the correct
manner
! you know where all the controls are and
how to use them before you need them.
Not all vehicles are the same; do not
wait until it is too late to find out
! your mirrors and seat are adjusted
correctly to ensure comfort, full control
and maximum vision
! head restraints are properly adjusted to
reduce the risk of neck and spine
injuries in the event of a collision
MUST NOT
Law RTA 1988 sects 4, 5 & 11(2)
MUST NOT
Law RTA 1988 sect 4
!
22
! you have sufficient fuel before
commencing your journey, especially if it
includes motorway driving. It can be
dangerous to lose power when driving in
traffic
! ensure your vehicle is legal and
roadworthy
! switch off your mobile phone.
98. Vehicle towing and loading. As a
driver
you tow more than your
licence permits. If you passed a car test
after 1 Jan 1997 you are restricted on
the weight of trailer you can tow
! you overload your vehicle
or trailer. You should not tow a weight
greater than that recommended by the
manufacturer of your vehicle
! you secure your load and it
stick out dangerously. Make
sure any heavy or sharp objects and
any animals are secured safely. If there
is a collision, they might hit someone
inside the vehicle and cause serious
injury
! you should properly distribute the weight
in your caravan or trailer with heavy
items mainly over the axle(s) and
ensure a downward load on the tow ball.
Manufacturer's recommended weight
and tow ball load should not be
exceeded. This should avoid the
possibility of swerving or snaking and
going out of control. If this does happen,
ease off the accelerator and reduce
speed gently to regain control
! carrying a load or pulling a trailer may
require you to adjust the headlights.
! In the event of a breakdown, be aware
that towing a vehicle on a tow rope is
potentially dangerous. You should
consider professional recovery.
! MUST NOT
MUST NOT
MUST
MUST NOT
Laws CUR reg 100 & MV(DL)R reg 43
Rules for drivers and motorcyclists
Seat belts and child restraints
99. You wear a seat belt in cars,
vans and other goods vehicles if one is
fitted (see table below). Adults, and
children aged 14 years and over,
use a seat belt or child restraint, where
fitted, when seated in minibuses, buses
and coaches. Exemptions are allowed
for the holders of medical exemption
certificates and those making deliveries
or collections in goods vehicles when
travelling less than 50 metres (approx
162 feet).
Seat belt requirements. This table
summarises the main legal
requirements for wearing seat belts in
cars, vans and other goods vehicles.
Correct child restraint
be used where seat belts fitted.
use adult belt if correct child restraint is
not available in a licensed taxi or private
hire vehicle, or for reasons of unexpected
necessity over a short distance, or if two
occupied restraints prevent fitment of a
third.
over 1.35 metres (approx 4ft 5 ins) in
height or 12 or 13 years
MUST
MUST
Laws RTA 1988 sects 14 & 15, MV(WSB)R,
MV(WSBCFS)R & MV(WSB)(A)R
1. - be worn if fitted.
Responsibility:
2. under 3 years of age -
Front seat: Correct child restraint
be used.
Back seat: Correct child restraint
be used. If one is not available in a taxi,
may travel unrestrained.
Responsibility:
3. from 3rd birthday up to 1.35
metres in height (or 12 birthday whichever
they reach first) -
Front seat: Correct child restraint
be used.
Back seat:
Responsibility:
4.
-
Front and back seat: Seat belt be
worn if available.
Responsibility:
5. passengers aged 14 and over-
Front and back seat: Seat belt be
worn if available.
Responsibility:
DRIVER
DRIVER
DRIVER
DRIVER
DRIVER
MUST
MUST
MUST
MUST
MUST
MUST
CHILD
CHILD
CHILD
MUST
MUST
ADULT
PASSENGER
23
Rules for drivers and motorcyclists
100. The driver ensure that all
children under 14 years of age in cars,
vans and other goods vehicles wear
seat belts or sit in an approved child
restraint where required (see table Rule
99). If a child is under 1.35 metres
(approx 4 feet 5 inches) tall, a baby
seat, child seat, booster seat or booster
cushion be used suitable for the
child's weight and fitted to the
manufacturer's instructions.
101. A rear-facing baby seat be
fitted into a seat protected by an active
frontal airbag, as in a crash it can cause
serious injury or death to the child.
102. Children in cars, vans and other
goods vehicles.
Drivers who are carrying children in
cars, vans and other goods vehicles
should also ensure that
! children should get into the vehicle
through the door nearest the kerb
! child restraints are properly fitted to
manufacturer's instructions
! children do not sit behind the rear seats
in an estate car or hatchback, unless a
special child seat has been fitted
! the child safety door locks, where fitted,
are used when children are in the
vehicle
! children are kept under control.
MUST
MUST
Laws RTA 1988 sects 14 & 15, MV(WSB)R,
MV(WSBCFS)R & MV(WSB)(A)R
MUST NOT
Laws RTA 1988 sects 14 & 15, MV (WSB)R,
MV(WSBCFS)R & MV(WSB)(A)R
!
24
Rules for drivers and motorcyclists
25
General rules, techniques & advice
This section should be read by all drivers,
motorcyclists, cyclists and horse riders. The
rules in The Highway Code do not give you
the right of way in any circumstance, but they
advise you when you should give way to
others. Always give way if it can help to avoid
an incident.
Signals
103. Signals warn and inform other road
users, including pedestrians (see
'Signals to other road users'), of your
intended actions. You should always
give clear signals in plenty of time,
having checked it is not misleading to
signal at that time
! use them to advise other road users
before changing course or direction,
stopping or moving off
! cancel them after use
! make sure your signals will not confuse
others. If, for instance, you want to stop
after a side road, do not signal until you
are passing the road. If you signal
earlier it may give the impression that
you intend to turn into the road. Your
brake lights will warn traffic behind you
that you are slowing down
! use an arm signal to emphasise or
reinforce your signal if necessary.
Remember that signalling does not give
you priority.
104. You should also
watch out for signals given by other
road users and proceed only when you
are satisfied that it is safe
! be aware that an indicator on another
vehicle may not have been cancelled.
105. You obey signals given by police
officers, traffic officers, traffic wardens
and signs used by school crossing
patrols. ( see 'Signals by authorised
persons')
106. Police stopping procedures. If the
police want to stop your vehicle they
will, where possible, attract your
attention by
flashing blue lights, headlights or
sounding their siren or horn, usually
from behind
!
!
!
MUST
Laws RTRA sect 28, RTA 1988 sect 35, TMA 2004
sect 6, & FTWO art 3
! directing you to pull over to the side by
pointing and/or using the left indicator.
You then pull over and stop as
soon as it is safe to do so. Then switch
off your engine.
107. Vehicle & Operator Services Agency
Officers have powers to stop vehicles
on all roads, including motorways and
trunk roads, in England and Wales.
They will attract your attention by
flashing amber lights
either from the front requesting you to
follow them to a safe place to stop
! or from behind directing you to pull over
to the side by pointing and/or using the
left indicator.
It is an offence not to comply with their
directions. You obey any signals
given (see 'Signals by authorised
persons').
108. Highways Agency Traffic Officers
have powers to stop vehicles on most
motorways and some 'A' class roads, in
England only. If HA traffic officers in
uniform want to stop your vehicle on
safety grounds (e.g. an insecure load)
they will, where possible, attract your
attention by
flashing amber lights, usually from
behind
! directing you to pull over to the side by
pointing and/or using the left indicator.
You then pull over and stop as soon
as it is safe to do so. Then switch off your
engine. It is an offence not to comply with
their directions. (see 'Signals by authorised
persons').
109. Traffic light signals and traffic signs.
You obey all traffic light signals
(see 'Light signals controlling traffic')
and traffic signs giving orders, including
temporary signals and signs signals
(see 'Signs giving orders', 'Warning
MUST
Law RTA 1988 sect 163
MUST
Laws RTA 1988, sect 67, & PRA 2002, sect 41 &
sched 5(8)
MUST
Law RTA1988, sects 35 &163 as amended by TMA 2004,
sect 6
MUST
Other stopping procedures
!
!
26
General rules, techniques & advice
signs', 'Direction signs'). Make sure you
know, understand and act on all other
traffic and information signs and road
markings (see 'Signs giving orders',
'Warning signs', 'Direction signs',
'Information signs', 'Road markings' and
'Vehicle markings').
110. Flashing headlights. Only flash your
headlights to let other road users know
that you are there. Do not flash your
headlights to convey any other
message or intimidate other road users.
111. Never assume that flashing headlights
is a signal inviting you to proceed. Use
your own judgement and proceed
carefully.
112. The horn. Use only while your vehicle
is moving and you need to warn other
road users of your presence. Never
sound your horn aggressively. You
use your horn
while stationary on the road
! when driving in a built-up area between
the hours of 11.30 pm and 7.00 am
except when another road user poses a
danger.
113.

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