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|Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy Remission and reversal.|
Types of Diabetes
Types of Diabetes. Reference: www.southasiandiabetes.ca
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes – formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes – develops when your pancreas no longer makes insulin. Insulin is the hormone that helps your body control the level of glucose (sugar) in your blood.
People with type 1 diabetes must take injections of insulin to help them break down the glucose in their blood.
The cause of type 1 diabetes is not known. However, we do know it is not caused by eating too much sugar and cannot be prevented. People are usually diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before the age of 30 and most often when they are children or teenagers. Approximately 10 percent of people with diabetes have type 1.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes – formerly known as adult-onset diabetes or non-insulin dependent diabetes – develops because your pancreas does not produce enough insulin OR your body does not properly use the insulin it makes. Insulin helps move the glucose (sugar) from the food we eat into our cells to be used for energy. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes – 90 percent of people with diabetes have this type.
People who are overweight and/or inactive are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. It used to be a disease of middle-aged and older adults but it’s increasingly diagnosed in young people – even children.
People with type 2 diabetes may initially manage their diabetes with diet and exercise but may require medication or insulin later in life.
Gestational diabetes develops in the second half of pregnancy and typically goes away after childbirth. It can be managed the same way type 2 diabetes is but it carries several risks for both mother and baby.
The baby is often much larger than average and may have to be delivered by caesarean section. This increases the risk of trauma for both mother and child. These babies can also have extra insulin in their blood, leading to low blood sugar within the first 24 hours after birth. This will resolve as the baby is fed with breast milk or formula. Long term, these children and their mothers are at increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. For this reason it is very important that mothers be tested for Type 2 diabetes 6 weeks to 6 months after giving birth.
All pregnant women should be screened for gestational diabetes between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. Women with multiple risk factors (listed below) should be tested in the first trimester AND AGAIN in the second and third trimester even if the first test is negative.
Risk factors for gestational diabetes include:
· previous diagnosis of gestational diabetes or delivery of a large baby
· being a member of a high-risk group including women of South Asian, Asian, African,
Hispanic and Aboriginal descent
· being 35 years old or older
· being obese
· having a history of polycystic ovary syndrome or acanthosis nigricans (a skin disorder where
darkened patches of skin appear)
· use of corticosteroids
Signs and Symptoms
Type 1, type 2 and pre-diabetes share the same symptoms.
These symptoms may start slowly and can be very hard to identify. They include:
· Increased thirst
· Frequent urination, especially at night, with large volumes of urine
· Losing or gaining weight
· Blurred vision
· Slow healing of skin, gum and urinary tract infections
· Impotence (men) and genital itching/vaginal yeast infections (women)
How You Can Help Others
Helping someone else is easy – share this information with friends and family. Everyone can benefit from knowing how to prevent diabetes.
It is very important to note that not everyone with diabetes develops complications. Good control of your blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol through good nutrition and exercise, can go a long way toward preventing serious complications.
For further information watch this 7 min video:
SPS- Updated March 06,2012
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