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Doctor Explains the usefulness of prostate exams
The examinations of the prostate are required to diagnose the presence of cancer, such as biopsy and determine whether the disease is limited to the region (located in the organ or confined) or have metastasized and transpose this area.
The assessment of the extent of the disease is called staging. The developing outside the prostate may be limited to the area surrounding it or reach other neighboring organs, eg, the nodes of the lymphatic system or the bones .
This distinction between a localized or metastatic disease is important to decide the most appropriate treatment and assess prognosis . Need then perform other tests prostate.
Prostate exams, what are they?
The DRE allows to determine a rough way, if the cancer is limited to the prostate. However, when the disease has indication for performing a treatment with curative intent, further analysis should be carried out more accurately, with the aim of evaluating the local extent.
The PSA level can help predict the extent of the cancer. higher the PSA level, the greater the probability of existence of a metastatic disease .
MRI examinations also part of the prostate that may indicate the staging. However, not all patients need to do it, the urologist derminará when appropriate.
In certain situations, it may be useful to check if the cancer is also located in the lymph nodes . Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging can be used for this purpose. In very selected cases there is a need to perform a surgery that allows you to remove the lymph nodes that exist around the prostate and send them for analysis.
The bones are the primary site of metastasis of this cancer. Between prostate exams , bone scintigraphy to determine whether there is the disease spread to this area.
It is very important to note that the decision about which tests to perform to assess the extent of the disease depend on information obtained from various sources. Changes detected in rectal , PSA level and the microscopic
characteristics of the tumor, determined in various fragments of prostate biopsy, are all relevant to the urologist, who will make a decision about the treatment of the patient from these results.
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