In the control and communication structure
A. Command flows down from the top in a simple pyramid, so that anyone who is higher in the pyramid has authority over anyone who is lower. Information flows up through the ‘chain of command’.
B. Directives flow down from the top and information flows upwards within functional pyramids, which meet at the top. The authority and responsibility of a role is limited to the roles beneath it in its own pyramid. It is difficult to exchange information between different functional areas. Details are provided by essay writing !
C. Information about task requirements and problems flows from the centre of task activity upwards and outwards, with those closest to the task deciding the resources and support needed from the rest of the organisation. A co-ordinating function may set priorities and overall resource levels based on information from all task centres. The structure shifts with the nature and location of the tasks.
D. Information and influence flow from person to person, based on voluntary relationships initiated for purposes of work, learning, mutual support and enjoyment, and shared values. A co-ordinating function may establish overall levels of contribution needed for the maintenance of the organisation. These tasks are assigned by mutual agreement.